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Privacy Compliance & Data Security

Information on Data Breach Prevention and the Appropriate Response

Article in Bloomberg BNA: The Right To Be Forgotten – Protection or Hegemony?

Posted in Privacy Rights

France’s data protection regulator – the  Commission Nationale de L’Informatique et des Libertés (CNIL) – ordered Alphabet Inc.’s Google in 2015 to comply with the right to be forgotten.

If the ruling is upheld, the approach to personal privacy threatens the equal and competing legitimate freedom of expression and access to information rights of businesses and consumers outside the European Union.

Scott L. Vernick and Jessica Kitain recently authored the Bloomberg BNA Privacy and Security Law Report article “The Right To Be Forgotten – Protection or Hegemony?” We invite you to read the full article.

Reproduced with permission from Privacy and Security Law Report, 15 PVLR 1253, 6/20/2016. Copyright © 2016 by The Bureau of National Affairs, Inc. (800.372.1033) http://www.bna.com

United States and Canada Warn Citizens and Organizations About Ransomware

Posted in Electronic Data Security

The United States and Canada have teamed up to alert both nations of the threat of ransomware, illustrating the harmful impact of these cyberattacks to individuals and organizations all over the world.

The United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Canadian Cyber Incident Response Centre (CCIRC) jointly issued alerts in response to ransomware variants infecting computers in the healthcare industry in the United States, New Zealand and Germany. The alert gives useful information about ransomware, including its main characteristics, its prevalence worldwide, variants that may be developing, and how individuals and businesses can prevent and reduce the prevalence of ransomware.

Ransomware is a type of malware that contaminates a computer system and will restrict a user’s access to said system. Often, a message will appear stating that the files have been encrypted, and the message will demand payment from the victim – usually in the form of virtual currency such as Bitcoin – as a condition to access being restored.

Amounts vary, but typically, the attacker will request $200-400 dollars, according to the US-CERT alert.

Attacks have been rampant in recent weeks with many of them targeting hospitals, and the hackers’ demands haven’t been cheap. Last week, Maryland-based MedStar Health was victimized by what appeared to be a ransomware attack in which the hacker demanded $18,500 in Bitcoin.

Earlier this year, Hollywood Presbyterian Medical Center in California paid a $17,000 ransom in Bitcoin to a hacker after the hospital’s computer systems were seized in a ransomware attack.

These recent attacks were likely ransomware variants, which typically demand more lucrative sums and can damage the entire organization’s files, not just the particular user’s device.  Sometimes, the ransomware can utilize spam emails, but in other cases, ransomware can take advantage of vulnerable web servers.

Systems damaged by ransomware are often infected with other types of malware which attempts to steal other information; one malicious malware, GameOver Zeus, was used to steal banking information and other types of data, according to the US-CERT alert.

One of the biggest impacts of ransomware, as the alert points out, is the lack of any guarantee that the encrypted files will be released, nor does decryption guarantee removal of the malware infection itself. The only thing certain is that the hackers receive the victim’s money and, in some cases, the victim or organization’s banking information.

US-CERT actually discourages organizations from paying the ransom due to the lack of guarantees that files will be released.

The US-CERT alert provides several recommendations for preventative measures individuals and organizations can take, including the following;

  • Have a data backup and recovery plan which can be tested regularly for all critical information; backups should be kept on separate storage devices;
  • Allow only specified programs to run on computers and web servers to prevent unapproved programs from running (known as application whitelisting);
  • Make use of patches to keep software and operating systems current with the latest updates;
  • Maintain current anti-virus software and scan all downloaded software from the internet prior to executing;
  • The “Least Privilege” principle should prevail – restrict users’ access to unnecessary software, systems, applications, and networks through the usage of permissions;
  • Preclude enabling macros from email attachments. Enabling macros allows embedded code to execute malware on the device. Organizations should have blocking software to cut off email messages with suspicious attachments;
  • Do not click on unsolicited Web links in emails.

As usual, report hacking or fraud incidents to the FBI’s Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3).

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Randall J. Collins is a law clerk in Fox Rothschild’s Philadelphia office.

Letter to New York State Banks and Insurance Companies: New Cybersecurity Regulations Likely (Part 2 of 2)

Posted in Data Protection Law Compliance, Electronic Data Security, Proposed Law

In my previous post, I reviewed the New York State Department of Financial Services’ (NYDFS) findings and conclusions of survey results of financial institutions and insurers’ programs, costs, and future plans related to cybersecurity.

Anthony J. Albanese – Acting Superintendent of Financial Services – writes in a November 9, 2015 letter to Financial and Banking Information Infrastructure Committee (FBIIC) Members that these conclusions have demonstrated a need for new cybersecurity regulations for financial institutions.

Such “robust regulatory action” would be a coordinated effort between state and federal agencies to create a thorough cybersecurity framework addressing critical concerns as well as covering New York-specific interests.

Potential regulations implemented by the NYDFS would require covered financial entities to meet specific cybersecurity obligations in the following areas:

  • Cybersecurity policies and procedures;
  • Third-party service provider management;
  • Multi-factor authentication (i.e., requiring covered entities to apply such authentication to customer, internal, and privileged access to confidential information as well as any access to internal systems or data from an internal network);
  • Chief Information Security Officer (i.e., covered entities will be required to have a CISO responsible for overseeing and implementing a cybersecurity policy, among other duties);
  • Application security (i.e., covered entities must have and set forth written policies, procedures, and guidelines to ensure the security of all applications utilized by the entity which need to be updated annually by the CISO);
  • Cybersecurity personnel and intelligence (i.e., covered entities will need to hire cybersecurity personnel who can handle certain cyber risks and perform core functions of “identify, protect, detect, respond and recover,” as well as providing mandatory training to such personnel);
  • An audit function; and
  • Notice of cybersecurity incidents.

Some of these proposed requirements are set forth in more detail below.

 

Cybersecurity Policies and Procedures

Covered entities, Albanese writes, would need to implement and maintain written cybersecurity policies and procedures addressing the following areas:

(1) information security;

(2) data governance and classification;

(3) access controls and identity management;

(4) business continuity and disaster recovery planning and resources;

(5) capacity and performance planning;

(6) systems operations and availability concerns;

(7) systems and network security;

(8) systems and application development and quality assurance;

(9) physical security and environmental controls;

(10) customer data privacy;

(11) vendor and third-party service provider management; and

(12) incident response, including by setting clearly defined roles and decision making authority.

 

Third-party Service Provider Management

Albanese wants covered entities to ensure that third-party cybersecurity policies and procedures are implemented. Third-party service providers who hold or have access to sensitive data or systems will need to adhere to certain contractual terms, including the following provisions:

(1) the use of multi-factor authentication to limit access to sensitive data and systems;

(2) the use of encryption to protect sensitive data in transit and at rest;

(3) notice to be provided in the event of a cyber security incident;

(4) the indemnification of the entity in the event of a cyber security incident that results in loss;

(5) the ability of the entity or its agents to perform cyber security audits of the third party vendor; and

(6) representations and warranties by the third party vendors concerning information security.

 

Audits

Annual penetration testing as well as quarterly vulnerability assessments will be a new requirement for covered entities. Such entities will also be responsible for maintenance of an audit trail system that perform the following functions:

(1) logs privileged user access to critical systems;

(2) protects log data stored as part of the audit trail from alteration or tampering;

(3) protects the integrity of hardware from alteration or tampering; and

(4) logs system events, including access and alterations made to audit trail systems.

 

Notice of Cybersecurity Incidents

Covered entities, Albanese writes, will need to immediately notify the NYDFS of any cyber security incident that is reasonably likely to materially affect such entity’s normal operation, including a cybersecurity incident

(1) that triggers certain other notice provisions under New York Law;

(2) of which the entity’s board is notified; or

(3) that involves the compromise of “nonpublic personal health information” and “private information” as defined under New York Law, payment card information or any biometric data.

 

These potential requirements are subject to further review and revision by the NYDFS, and there is no timetable for when these requirements will become the law of the land in New York. It will be interesting to see if and when covered entities begin implementing these requirements in advance of a legal obligation to do so. Will other states’ regulatory agencies enact similar regulations modeled on the NYDFS proposals? Look for developments on this topic in the news and on this website.

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Randall J. Collins is a law clerk in Fox Rothschild’s Philadelphia office.

Letter to New York State Banks and Insurance Companies: New Cybersecurity Regulations Likely (Part 1 of 2)

Posted in Data Protection Law Compliance, Electronic Data Security, Proposed Law

In reaction to two surveys of more than 150 regulated banking organizations and 43 regulated insurers in New York, the state’s Acting Superintendent of Financial Services issued a letter to all Financial and Banking Information Infrastructure Committee (FBIIC) Members addressing the need for potential new cybersecurity regulations in the financial sector.

The New York State Department of Financial Services (NYDFS) expects that the November 9, 2015 letter will trigger more “dialogue, collaboration and, ultimately, regulatory convergence” among New York agencies on “strong” cybersecurity norms for financial institutions.

In the letter, Anthony J. Albanese – Acting Superintendent of Financial Services – discusses the NYDFS’ review of the two surveys which were conducted in 2013 and 2014. The surveys asked about the banks’ and insurers’ programs, costs, and future plans pertaining to cybersecurity. Albanese writes that the findings of those surveys led to some additional actions:

  • The NYDFS expanded its information technology examination procedures to focus more attention on cybersecurity;
  • NYDFS began conducting risk assessments of its financial institutions in late 2014 and early 2014 to compile information about risks and vulnerabilities;
  • In response to a realization of the financial industry’s reliance on third-party service providers for banking and insurance functions, the NYDFS conducted an additional survey of regulated banks in October 2014, specifically pertaining to banks’ management of third-party service providers; and
  • NYDFS published an April 2015 update to its earlier report with the most critical observations.

Those reports and risk assessments as well as the “dozens of discussions” the NYDFS has held with New York financial entities, cybersecurity experts, and other stakeholders have led to several “broad conclusions,” Albanese writes:

  • Financial institutions need to stay “dynamic” to keep pace with ever-changing technological advances and sophisticated cyberthreats;
  • Financial institutions’ third-party service providers must also have sufficient cybersecurity protections as these service providers often have access to an institution’s sensitive data and information technology systems; and
  • Cybersecurity is a “global concern” that affects every industry as evidenced by recent data breaches.

My next post will analyze the proposed regulatory actions and requirements NYDFS is considering for financial institutions and insurers.

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Randall J. Collins is a law clerk in Fox Rothschild’s Philadelphia office.

Privacy v. Security: The Battle Between Apple and the FBI

Posted in Electronic Data Security, Privacy Rights

Fox Partner and Chair of the Privacy and Data Security Practice Scott L. Vernick was a guest on Fox Business’ “The O’Reilly Factor” and “After the Bell” on February 17, 2016, to discuss the controversy between Apple and the FBI over device encryption.

A federal court recently ordered Apple to write new software to unlock the iPhone used by one of the shooters in the San Bernardino attacks in December. Apple CEO Tim Cook has vowed to fight the court order.

The Federal Government vs. Apple (The O’Reilly Factor, 02/17/16)

Apple’s Privacy Battle With the Federal Government (After the Bell, 02/17/16)

 

 

 

The White House’s New Cybersecurity National Action Plan

Posted in Data Protection Law Compliance, Proposed Law

The White House is building on recent laws addressing cybersecurity in the United States with the release of a new Cybersecurity National Action Plan (“CNAP”). The plan focuses on:

  • improving cybersecurity awareness and protections;
  • additional privacy and security protections for individuals through the creation of a permanent Federal Privacy Council;
  • maintenance of public safety, economic security and national security through a new Commission on Enhancing National Security; and
  • encouraging citizens to take better control of their digital information and security.

CNAP includes a request to Congress to invest over $19 billion for the 2017 Fiscal Year Budget, which is a 35% increase to resources allocated to cybersecurity during FY 2016.

The plan is highlighted by a new Commission on Enhancing National Security (“Commission”). The Commission will be comprised of top technical, strategic, and business advisors in the private sector chosen by bipartisan Congressional leadership.  It will make detailed recommendations to improve cybersecurity awareness both inside and outside the government.  The Commission will also make specific findings about improving national security and empowering citizens to better handle their digital security.  These recommendations and findings must be reported to the President before the end of this year.

The White House looks to make significant improvements in government cybersecurity as part of a $3.1 billion Information Technology Modernization Fund, which will allow agencies to modernize outdated IT infrastructure, networks and systems. A new Federal Chief Information Security Officer will be solely dedicated to developing, managing, and coordinating cybersecurity policies, strategies and operations in the federal government.  The Department of Homeland Security will have new federal civilian cyber defense teams to protect associated networks, systems and data.  The plan also calls for disrupting cyberattacks and improving cyber incident response.

CNAP’s concern for citizens’ privacy and security is reflected in an Executive Order making the Federal Privacy Council permanent. Privacy officials from across the government will help ensure that more strategic and comprehensive federal privacy guidelines are implemented.  The Administration wants citizens to leverage multiple layers of authentication when logging into online accounts instead of just a password. Extra factors like a fingerprint or a single use code via text message are ways to improve online security. The federal government is accelerating adoption of this approach for citizen-to-government digital services, such as tax and health benefit information.  The White House’s new milestones for the 2014 BuySecure Initiative will build upon the already 2.5 million issued Chip-and-PIN payment cards.

Research and development will continue to be a focus with a new Federal Cybersecurity Research and Development Strategic Plan. The strategic plan outlines research and development goals so that U.S. can advance cybersecurity technologies.  CNAP further mentions working with the Linux Foundation’s Core Infrastructure Initiative to maintain and improve internet infrastructure.

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Randall J. Collins is a law clerk in Fox Rothschild’s Philadelphia office.

The Data is In… Privacy Internet Lawsuits are Out

Posted in Data Protection Law Compliance, Data Theft, Regulatory Enforcement and Litigation

The “new age” of internet and dispersed private data is not so new anymore but that doesn’t mean the law has caught up.  A few years ago, plaintiffs’ cases naming defendants like Google, Apple, and Facebook were at an all-time high but now, plaintiffs firms aren’t interested anymore.  According to a report in The Recorder, a San Francisco based legal newspaper, privacy lawsuits against these three digital behemoths have dropped from upwards of thirty cases in the Northern District of California i 2012 to less than five in 2015.   Although some have succeeded monumentally—with Facebook writing a $20 million check to settle a case over the fact that it was using users’ images without their permission on its “sponsored stories” section—this type of payout is not the majority.  One of the issues is that much of the law in this arena hasn’t developed yet.  Since there is no federal privacy law directly pertaining to the digital realm, many complaints depend on old laws like the Electronic Communications Privacy Act and Stored Communications Act (1986) as well as the Video Privacy Protection Act (1988).  The internet and its capacities was likely not the target of these laws—instead they were meant to prohibit such behavior as tapping a neighbor’s phone or collecting someone’s videotape rental history.

Further, it seems unavoidable now to have personal data somewhere somehow.  Privacy lawsuits attempting to become class actions have a difficulty in succeeding in a similar way that data breach class actions do: the plaintiffs face the challenge of proving concrete harms.  In a case later this year, Spokeo v. Robins, the Supreme Court may change this area of law because it will decide whether an unemployed plaintiff can sue Spokeo for violating the Fair Credits Reporting Act because Spokeo stated that he was wealthy and held a graduate degree.  The issue will turn on proving actual harm.  Companies that deal with private information on a consistent basis should protect themselves by developing privacy policies that, at the very least, may limit their liability.   The reality is that data is everywhere and businesses will constantly be finding creative and profitable ways to use it.

To keep up with the Spokeo v. Robins case, check out the SCOTUSblog here.

http://www.scotusblog.com/case-files/cases/spokeo-inc-v-robins/

Privacy Policies Matter… Whether You Read Them Or Not

Posted in Data Protection Law Compliance, Privacy Policy

New innovations come hand in hand with new privacy issues.  Privacy policies may seem like a last minute add-on to some app developers but they are actually an important aspect of an app.  Data breaches are an imminent risk and a business’s first defense to potential problems is a privacy policy.

Fordham University in New York hosted its Ninth Law and Information Society Symposium last week where policy and technology leaders came together to discuss current privacy pitfalls and solutions.  Joanne McNabb, the California attorney general’s privacy education director and a leader in policies affecting the privacy agreements of companies such as Google and Apple, emphasized in a panel that she “wants to make the case for the unread privacy policy.”  She noted that the policy mainly promotes “governance and accountability [and] it forces an organization to be aware of their data practices to some degree, express them and then therefore to stand behind them.”  The privacy policy still matters because it protects businesses from the risks associated with having a high level of data. It is especially necessary for those businesses that depend solely on private information because they are at a higher risk of breach.

The FTC (Federal Trade Commission) has suggested using an approach called “Privacy By Design” which is a method of imbedding privacy protections into the infrastructure of the app.  This approach removes the concern of implementing privacy policies post-development. Another method of simplifying the privacy policy is the alert prompt that some apps have employed to consistently give consumers notice of when and where their information is used. McNabb and her fellow panelists found this method of “short, timely notices” helpful in closing the gap between the unread privacy policies and the claimed “surprise” of consumers who blame an app for the dissemination of information.

As the industry moves forward, privacy will become an even greater part of the equation. Whether a privacy policy is read is insignificant. The protections it puts in place for all parties involved are crucial. As apps and technologies become more connected to the private preferences of consumers, businesses with a leg up on privacy protections will thrive against the backdrop of those who view privacy as a second tier requirement.

For more information on “Privacy By Design” click here.

A Dream or A Nightmare? How the FCC’s Addition of Vague Robocall Rules to the TCPA May Increase Litigation and Issues for Businesses

Posted in Data Protection Law Compliance, FCC Rules and Regulations, Privacy Policy, Regulatory Enforcement and Litigation

The freedom from automated calls at random hours of the evening may seem like the true American dream these days as more and more companies rely on these calls to reach out and communicate with customers.  Unfortunately, now that the Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”) voted to expand the Telephone Consumer Protection Act (“TCPA”) to include stringent yet vague restrictions on telemarketing robocalls, it may not be a dream for everyone. 

In June of this year, in a 3-2 vote, the FCC voted on adding the rule to the TCPA that entails barring companies from using “autodialers” to dial consumers, disallowing more than one phone call to numbers that have been reassigned to different customers, and mandating a stop to calls under a customer’s wishes.  These restriction may seem reasonable but dissenting Commissioner, Ajit Pai, recognized that the rule’s broad language will create issues because it does not distinguish between legitimate businesses trying to reach their customers and unwanted telemarketers.  Some attorneys have further commented on the rule stating that its use of “autodialer” opens up a can of worms of interpretations and can really be viewed as any device with even the potential to randomly sequence numbers, including a smartphone.  Companies using even slightly modernized tactics to reach out to their customer base are now at risk of facing litigation—and it won’t stop there.  Businesses that legitimately need to reach out to their customers will be caught between a rock and a hard place as they face a one-call restriction now and may also open themselves up to litigation if a customer decides to take that route.

The FCC Chairman, Tom Wheeler, attempted to quash concerns by stating that “Legitimate businesses seeking to provide legitimate information will not have difficulties.”  This statement unfortunately won’t stop plaintiff’s attorneys from greasing their wheels to go after companies who even make “good faith efforts” to abide by the new rule.  Attorneys who defend businesses have recognized that the rule is ridden with issues that could potentially harm companies that simply do not have the mechanisms to fully control and restrict repeated calls or the technology that makes those calls.  But, long story short, just because this rule has been put in motion, does not mean it will stand as is. Litigation and court action will likely be a natural consequence and that may result in changes for the future.  For now, businesses that utilize automated phone calls should be wary of the technology used and attempt to at least keep track of numbers and phone calls made.  When in doubt, talk to an attorney to make sure you are taking the appropriate precautions.

Further Thoughts on Data Breaches and Article III Standing

Posted in Data Security Breach Response, Regulatory Enforcement and Litigation

A recent District of Nevada ruling could cause issues for consumers in data breach class action cases moving forward.  On June 1, 2015, the court ruled that a consumer class action against Zappos.com Inc. could not proceed because the class did not state “instances of actual identity theft or fraud.”  The suit was brought as a result of a 2012 data breach where Zappos’ customers’ personal information was stolen, including names, passwords, addresses, and phone numbers.  Even though the information was stolen, the court dismissed the case because the class could not prove that they had been materially harmed and had no other standing under Article III.

If a data breach has occurred, but the victims cannot claim any harm besides the fear that a hacker has their information, courts have been willing to grant defendants’ motions to dismiss.  The ruling by the District of Nevada court is the most recent decision in a trend to block consumer class actions relating to data breaches.  Many of these recent rulings have been influenced by the Supreme Court’s 2013 decision in Clapper v. Amnesty International USA.  In Clapper, the Supreme Court held that claims of future injury could only satisfy the Article III standing requirement if the injury was “certainly impending” or if there was a “substantial risk” that the harm was going to occur.  Unfortunately for the consumer class in the Zappos’ case this means that unless their stolen information has been used to harm them, the data breach alone is not enough standing to bring a suit.

However, some district courts have been able to find sufficient standing for data breach victims in spite of the Clapper decision.  In Moyer v. Michaels Stores, a district court in the Northern District of Illinois ruled that data breach victims had standing to sue.  The court relied on Pisciotta v. Old National Bancorp, a Seventh Circuit pre-Clapper decision, which held that the injury requirement could be satisfied by an increased risk of identity theft, even if there was no financial loss.  Moyer further distinguished itself from Clapper by explaining that Clapper dealt with national security issues, and not general consumer data breaches.  Other district courts have distinguished their cases from Clapper by holding that Clapper dealt with harm that was too speculative to quantify, while consumer data breach cases deal with the concrete possibility of identity theft.

Although Clapper set the tone for consumer data breach claims, district courts have been divided because of different interpretations in the ruling.  The Supreme Court recently granted certiorari in another Article III standing case, Spokeo Inc. v. Robins Inc., which deals with a private right of action grounded in a violation of a federal statute.  Although it does not directly deal with consumer data breaches, the decision may lead the Supreme Court to expand the standing requirements generally.  Given society’s increasing use of technology and inclination to store personal information electronically, consumer data breach claims will only increase in the future.  The courts’ standing requirements must adapt to meet the changing needs of individuals and businesses alike.